Dimosthenis Karatzas


Refereed Papers

Ground Truth for Layout Analysis Performance Evaluation

A. Antonacopoulos, D. Karatzas, D. Bridson

in the book: Document Analysis Systems VII: Proceedings of the International Association for Pattern Recognition (IAPR) Workshop on Document Analysis Systems (DAS2006), H. Bunke and A.L. Spitz (Eds.), Springer Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 3872, 2006, pp. 302-311


Over the past two decades a significant number of layout analysis (page segmentation and region classification) approaches have been proposed in the literature. Each approach has been devised for and/or evaluated using (usually small) application-specific datasets. While the need for objective performance evaluation of layout analysis algorithms is evident, there does not exist a suitable dataset with ground truth that reflects the realities of everyday documents (widely varying layouts, complex entities, colour, noise etc.). The most significant impediment is the creation of accurate and flexible (in representation) ground truth, a task that is costly and must be carefully designed. This paper discusses the issues related to the design, representation and creation of ground truth in the context of a realistic dataset developed by the authors. The effectiveness of the ground truth discussed in this paper has been successfully shown in its use for two international page segmentation competitions (ICDAR2003 and ICDAR2005).

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